Jackhammers. Types and features of use

Despite the fact that the jackhammer is not such a popular construction tool as a drill, its destructive ability is of great importance in the field of construction and industry.

In this article:

Jackhammers. Types and features of use
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Brief history and device jackhammer

Yes, and in domestic needs, it can sometimes come in handy (for example, a home master may need to move a doorway in a house, dismantle walls or break a frozen ground).

The first jackhammers (easel) were used in the construction of the tunnel between the cities of Modan (France) and Bardonecchia (Italy) in 1857-71. These machines were designed by engineer Germaine Sommeye. Later Georg Liner invented the first portable perforator, the design of which was in many respects similar to the design of the modern jackhammer.

In the 30s of the 20th century, the first hammers appeared in our country. Probably everyone knows about Alexey Stakhanov – the famous miner of the Soviet Union, whose feat was known all over the country (over fulfilment of the coal mining plan – for the change Stakhanov and his assistants extracted 102 tonnes of coal instead of 7). After all, new equipment, namely powerful jackhammers, played a big role in this event. Stakhanov has posthumously established a monument in the Luhansk region, where the miner is depicted with a jackhammer on his shoulder.

A jackhammer is a tool whose main task is to destroy strong materials, such as asphalt, rocks, concrete, brick structures, frozen ground. Consider the construction of this device using the example of a simple pneumatic hammer. This is a piston impact machine that operates under the influence of compressed air. A special air-distributing mechanism converts the energy of compressed air into a mechanical one, which ensures the activity of the drummer. In general, the structure of the jackhammer is very similar to the structure of the perforator, but there is no mechanism for rotational movements of the bit. The main function of this tool is a powerful blow. The working part is a peak, which can have different shapes (crowbar, scapula, chisel).

Depending on the type of energy used, the following types of hammers are distinguished:

  • Electrical
  • Hydraulic
  • Pneumatic
  • Gasoline

Electric jackhammers

The pier located in the tool body is driven by an electric motor in such a hammer. As a rule, electric hammers are lighter in weight than gasoline ones, and at the same time are not inferior to their counterparts in productivity. Nevertheless, the mobility of these tools is very low (a network is needed), and there is a risk of fires and explosions when operating in environments where arcing can not be allowed. In many modern tools, there is a function of electronic regulation of the impact force and speed of operation.

Pneumatic pick hammers

The construction of such a hammer was described in the first part of the article. A special compressor supplies compressed air through a rubber hose, actuating the tool hammer. The weight of pneumatic tools is usually small, they are compact enough, ideal for long-term work. An important advantage of such tools lies in the possibility of their use in places with high humidity, strong dustiness and in fire-hazardous conditions.

Hydraulic breakers

These are the tools, in which hydraulic pumping stations are used as a drive. The hydraulic drive has several advantages. Firstly, such a drive is much easier than a compressor for pneumatic tools. The compactness of the drive and the hammer itself makes it possible to work in close and hard-to-reach places. Secondly, such jackhammers produce much less noise, there are no exhausts. The drive-hammer kit is not sensitive to weather conditions, humidity and dust. Thirdly, such a tool is easy to operate, does not require special material costs, is reliable and durable.

Gasoline jackhammers

Such models have their advantages and disadvantages. Working from a fuel engine, the devices are very mobile, which is important under certain operating conditions, at the same time they constantly need fuel, are not eco-friendly, produce a lot of noise and vibration.

Hammers are professional and household. It is determined whether the instrument belongs to a group with such indicators as power, impact force and impact frequency. By weight, all hammers can be divided into light (up to 6 kg), medium (up to 10 kg) and heavy (up to 30 kg). The first are designed for single-time, periodic work, the second is excellent for horizontal work, the third – for earthwork, requiring special equipment.

Demolition hammer: selection characteristics

  • Impact energy;
  • The number of strokes per unit of time;
  • Power;
  • The weight;
  • Type of power source.

Extra options:

  • Vibration protection and dust protection;
  • Type of shank (hexagon, SDS-max, SDS-plus,);
  • Fixing of the switch;
  • Fixation of the chisel in different positions;
  • Cable break warning system;
  • Electronic speed control.

The key characteristics in the choice of the instrument are the number of beats per minute and the value of the maximum impact energy. But in principle, it is possible to operate with the weight of the instrument, because it is directly related to its purpose.

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